使用SCP授权keys

有些时候,我们在复制/移动文件到另一台机器时会用到scp,因为它比较安全。但如果每次

都要输入密码,就比较烦了,尤其是在script里。不过,ssh有另一种用密钥对来验证的方

式。下面写出我生成密匙对的过程,供大家参考。

第一步:生成密匙对,我用的是rsa的密钥。使用命令 “ssh-keygen -t rsa”

代码:

[[email protected] user1]$ ssh-keygen -t rsa 
Generating public/private rsa key pair. 
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/user1/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory '/home/user1/.ssh'. 
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
Enter same passphrase again: 
Your identification has been saved in /home/user1/.ssh/id_rsa. 
Your public key has been saved in /home/user1/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. 
The key fingerprint is: 
e0:f0:3b:d3:0a:3d:da:42:01:6a:61:2f:6c:a0:c6:e7 [email protected] 
[[email protected] user1]$

生成的过程中提示输入密钥对保存位置,直接回车,接受默认值就行了。接着会提示输入一

个不同于你的password的密码,直接回车,让它空着。当然,也可以输入一个。(我比较懒

,不想每次都要输入密码。) 这样,密钥对就生成完了。

其中公共密钥保存在 ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
私有密钥保存在 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

然后改一下 .ssh 目录的权限,使用命令 “chmod 755 ~/.ssh”
代码:

[[email protected] user1]$ chmod 755 ~/.ssh 
[[email protected] user1]$

之后把这个密钥对中的公共密钥复制到你要访问的机器上去,并保存为

~/.ssh/authorized_keys.

代码:

[[email protected] user1]$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub rh1:/home/user1/.ssh/authorized_keys 
[email protected]'s password: 
id_rsa.pub 100% 228 3.2MB/s 00:00 
[[email protected] user1]$

之这样就大功告成了。之后你再用ssh scp sftp 之类的访问那台机器时,就不用输入密码

了,用在script上更是方便。

[[email protected] ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa  
 
[[email protected] ~]# chmod 755 ~/.ssh 
 
[[email protected] ~]# scp -r ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub 192.168.1.1:/root/.ssh/authorized_keys
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